Real democracy, where everyone gets an equal vote is just not working in the United States. Twice in the last five presidential election cycles we elected a minority president, George W Bush got half-million fewer votes than Al Gore in 2000 and Donald Trump got three million fewer votes than Hillary Clinton in 2016.
Blame the construction of the electoral college. Each state is allotted a number of electoral votes equal to the sum of the state’s representatives and senators. This means that voters in small states have more electoral “oomph” than those in larger states. Taking an extreme example, the 266,464 registered voters in Wyoming select three electors. Each elector is selected by 88,213 voters. In California on the other hand, 19,411,771 registered voters share fifty-five electoral votes. Here each elector is selected by 352,941 voters. Essentially an individual vote in Wyoming counts four times as much as a vote in California.
The authors of the constitution had several reasons, but the perception now is that using the electoral college to elect the president gives the smaller states protection from domination by the larger states. Perversely, this allows the politics of the people in smaller states to dominate those in the larger states. Further confounding the disparity is the fact that with the exception of Maine and Nebraska, every state uses a winner take all distribution of its electoral votes.
The composition of U.S. Senate is equally undemocratic, with each state having two senators regardless of its population. One California senator represents twenty million people, whereas one in Wyoming only a quarter of a million, an eighty-fold difference in representation! The structure of the Senate came about via what is called the Connecticut Compromise in 1787 during the writing of the Constitution. It gave more power to the less populace states, several of which were slave-holding states in the south.
The House of Representatives, the people’s house, comes the closest to a federal democracy, but even here there is inequity. In 2016, the Republicans garnered 51 percent of the votes cast in the House elections. That earned them over 55 percent of the house seats. This is the result of how district lines are drawn. Gerrymandering, drawing the lines to favor one group over another is alive and well.
Steps can be taken to fix our undemocratic processes. The Supreme Court has yet to rule in a case where partisan gerrymandering has been claimed as the sole reason for the case but they may in the future.
An interesting attempt to solve the problem in the electoral college is in progress. Called the National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, it would reform the college by a binding agreement between states to award all of a state’s electoral votes to the winner of the national popular vote. It only takes states holding 270 votes in aggregate, for the system to work. Currently, states representing 172 electoral votes, two-thirds of the number needed, have joined the compact. As soon as the requisite 270 votes are secured the compact goes into effect.