Europe Gets It

Donald Trump, early in his presidency stated his intention to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, a voluntary agreement to which every nation around the world is a signatory. The scientific consensus around the world is that the planet is warming and humans are the cause. The response of the rest of the world is to work towards reducing the damage by limiting the use of fossil fuels as a major step.

President Trump’s position however is: “as of today the United States will cease all implementation of the non-binding Paris Accord and the draconian financial and economic burdens the agreement imposes on our country. This includes ending the implementation of the nationally determined contribution…”

Wind and solar, as replacements for coal are already the less expensive alternative for generating electricity. Leaders around the world know this and are implementing the use of renewable energy as a cost-saving measure in addition to reducing global-warming carbon emissions. Much of Europe is ahead of the curve. Below are the highlights of a few European countries energy mix.

Of course, some countries have natural advantages: Switzerland is mountainous, Denmark windy, and Spain sunny. Ninety-seven percent of Switzerland’s electrical energy is produced from hydropower. In terms of potential expansion, hydropower is difficult because in the developed world, most of the good sites are already developed.

Denmark is currently a wind energy leader, both in installed capacity and technology companies focused on wind technology. Over 60 percent of total electric generation is renewable, most of that coming from wind. Denmark utilizes much off-shore wind where turbines are larger and the winds stronger and more consistent, all of which lowers the cost.

As noted Spain benefits from the sun, but also some hydro. Their total fraction for renewable energy is 40%. Over half of that is solar photovoltaic arrays with some solar thermal plants. Surprisingly, about 4% is from geothermal which is tens times as much on a percentage basis than the United States.

Germany is interesting, they are not especially blessed with wind or solar but are working hard to utilize these sources none the less. Germany relies on coal and nuclear, both of which they plan to phase out in the not too distant future. Their renewable energy is now about 30%. Wind generation is spread across the Republic but especially in the north and off-shore in the Baltic and North Seas. Solar PV installations dominate in Southern Germany but there is much rooftop solar as far north as Cologne. For reference that is farther north than Winnipeg, Canada.
Compare the USA at 18% total renewables, 7% hydro, 6% wind, and 1% solar, with solar the fastest growing. With our vast potential for both wind and solar, we could be leading the world. More wind turbines and solar panels are needed but also needed is the infrastructure create a robust electrical grid. Particularly needed is transmission capacity to move an abundance of wind energy from the Midwest.

Dr. Bob Allen is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Arkansas Tech University.

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