Tag Archives: electric cars

Making Clean Air Costly

The Arkansas legislature is doing its best to look backward rather than forward. Just this year the transportation sector in the United States became the major source contributing to global warming and the changes to the climate it induces. At the same time, a clear majority of Americans including Arkansans believe global warming is real, is caused by humans, and is especially threatening to future generations.

Logic should suggest then that changes to our transportation systems here in Arkansas should take account of this risk and do the right thing. Modes of transportation which don’t contribute to global warming should be favored over those that do. Right?

The new law for funding for highways in Arkansas raises fuel taxes to help pay for construction and maintenance of our highway system. For gasoline, the state tax will go from 20.8 cents a gallon to 23.8 cents a gallon, a 3 cent per gallon rise. The diesel fuel tax will rise by 6 cents a gallon.

It will raise 100s of millions of dollars a year. Ironically it will also reduce highway use at least in principle – the more gas costs, the less gas is used. Less gasoline use means a lower contribution to global warming which is a good thing. Lower gasoline use also means cleaner air, less volatile organic carbon emitted, and less ozone formed. Also a good thing.

At the same time, the bill taxes electric vehicles that don’t contribute to global warming and negative health effects from tailpipe emissions. As they don’t use gasoline or diesel, the “tax” will be assessed via a greater registration fee: 200 dollar increase per pure electric vehicle, and 100 dollars per plug-in hybrid . On the surface, this seems fair as these electric cars use and therefore abuse the highways and need to pay their fair share. But is this taxation rate fair?

The average Arkansas vehicle travels about 15,000 miles per year. At an average mileage, this works out to a tax rate significantly lower than that assessed on electric vehicles. The tax assessment plan will literally punish efficiency. It will make the purchase of electric vehicles less attractive. In so doing, this will increase, not decrease damage due our shared climate. Does the legislature really want to make our children’s future more grim?

Quite simply gasoline and diesel powered vehicles contribute to global warming, electric vehicles don’t. As a society, we need to consider the climate with every decision we make, at least if we care about our children’s future. We need to promote clean energy systems at the expense of those systems and processes that contribute to global warming.

Dr. Bob Allen, Ph.D., is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Arkansas Tech University.

Lithium

A couple of decades ago and without having taken at least a high school chemistry course most would not have heard of Lithium, nor use it in their daily lives. Now however it dominates the battery world. Disposable Lithium metal batteries power all sorts of devices which require the packing a lot of power in a small space . In addition to AA and AAA batteries, Lithium metal batteries power virtually all the “coin” batteries in small devices such as hearing aids and watches. Lithium metal batteries also have an illicit use as a reagent in the synthesis of methamphetamine but that is another story.

Lithium metal batteries pack about twice the punch as Lithium ion batteries for a given size. More important for many applications is the fact that Lithium ion batteries are rechargeable, greatly increasing their utility. Everything from cell phones to plug-in hybrids (electric cars which can be charged at home or work) utilize the rechargeable aspect of lithium ion batteries.

Lithium is a metal but the periodic chart is populated by scores of metals, in fact the majority of elements in the universe are metals. What makes Lithium unique is it’s charge to weight (and volume) ratio. Lithium metal is the lightest metal and can exist as a stable ion. This means it is capable of giving up or accepting an electron, a necessary function of a battery. Think of a charged battery as reservoir of electrons. When a battery powered device is turned on a circuit is completed which allows the electrons to flow. This is the electric current which does what ever work of a device was built for, be it lighting a light bulb or powering an electric automobile.

As the reservoir of electrons is depleted the battery loses power. Rechargeable batteries are capable of reversing the loss of electrons by pushing electrons back into the battery.

Rechargeable batteries are at the heart of numerous university, government, and private research facilities for two obvious reasons. First, electric powered transportation is the future but contemporary batteries have a limited range. Equally limiting is the long recharge times required. To replace internal combustion engine powered cars, battery powered electric cars and going to have to have a several hundred mile range and a few minutes recharge time. That is a tall order.

So is there enough Lithium out there to meet the increasing demand? Do we have supplies here in the US or do we have to buy it from other countries? Can we afford it? All valid questions. Lithium is present in the earth’s crust at about 20 parts per million (PPM.) This doesn’t sound like much but it more than more commonly known metals such as Lead and Mercury.

Currently we import about 80% of our Lithium needs, but recent prospecting has turned up brine deposits in Wyoming which may provide for our need for sometime into the future. Ultimately the world’s richest deposits of economically recoverable Lithium are in the Atacama desert on the Pacific coast of Chile. Unrelated factoid – the Atacama is the driest place on earth.