Tag Archives: public health

Dealing with an Epidemic

Unless you live under a rock, you are at least aware that we have a viral infection rearing its head in the United States. Whether you call it an epidemic or a pandemic is immaterial. It began most likely in a market in Wuhan, China where any number of wild animal meats were on sale. Bats have been suggested but it isn’t yet clear.

The infection due to this virus is called COVID-19, as it is a member of a group of viruses known as corona viruses and it appeared in 2019. The virus itself has been given the name SARS-CoV-2 – short for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome second corona virus.

The first response by the government has been to close our borders to countries where an infection is already established. This response was too little too late. It appears the virus has been circulating in the United States for weeks now. There are reported cases in 15 states and 6 known fatalities. As a respiratory virus, its symptoms are similar to the annual flu but more lethal. It also seems to be more transmissible.

Meanwhile, on the economic front, the Federal Reserve has taken a step to stimulate business by lowering the rate it charges to loan money. The idea is to stimulate economic activity and get folks out to spend money. Weird huh? On the one hand, we are told to stay home to avoid the possibility of person to person transmission and at the same time get out in the public and spend to get the stock market value back up.

The Whitehouse proposed a couple of billion dollars to fight the epidemic and the Democrats have proposed much more. Even if approved it is not clear how this money will be allocated. Obviously a vaccine must be at or near the top of the list. Testing equipment and medical supplies from face masks to respirators are needed. Most important is to disrupt person to person contact. Officials have recommended the usual hand washing and if you exhibit symptoms, stay home – don’t go to work or school.

But here our for-profit healthcare system begins to fail us. Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar, a former drug company executive and pharmaceutical lobbyist, said that although he would want to make it affordable, he won’t promise that it will be. You hear all the time that related vaccines are “free” but the fine print says “with most insurance.” When the working poor get sick, they don’t stay home. If their children get sick, they go to school. There are a lot of folks whose jobs have no sick leave option – you don’t go to work you don’t get paid.

We need a healthcare system that recognizes it only works if it works for all. Free vaccinations. Full stop, payments to those who shouldn’t be going to work and payments for care of their sick children. And importantly a system that guarantees that they will still have a job if they stay home for an illness.

Dr. Bob Allen, Ph.D., is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at Arkansas Tech University.

Zika in Arkansas

Currently there are several confirmed cases of the Zika virus in Arkansas. The cases all involve individuals who contracted the disease while traveling in areas where the disease is prevalent, usually Latin American or Caribbean locales.

The virus can be carried by two related mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Transmission of the disease occurs when a mosquito bites an infected individual and picks up the virus in the process. Then when that mosquito bites another uninfected person and inoculates them with the virus. Of the two mosquitoes, A. ablopictus is the lesser threat as it feeds on animals in addition to humans. On the other hand A. aegypti prefers humans and is therefore more likely to transmit the virus among humans.

Once contracted, an infected individual is capable of spreading the disease for several months, both via mosquito bites and also sexual contact. The virus has been isolated in the semen of infected men up to two months after acquiring the disease.

The range of A aegypti includes almost all of Arkansas, only the northeast corner near the boot heel of Missouri being outside the range. A aegypti is particularly problematic because it breeds rapidly and in amazingly small amounts of water. Eggs laid in a bottle cap’s worth of water mature to adults in as short as a weeks time. Also troublesome is that A aegypti is a daytime feeder when humans are more likely to be out and about.

The Zika virus causes a range of symptoms. A minor set of symptoms include rash, mild fever, joint pain and headache which may persist from a couple of days to a week or so. What has gotten the most attention of course is the teratogenic effect. If a pregnant woman gets infected, the virus can pass to the fetus and cause a condition know as microcephaly, an abnormally small head. The condition is severe and can result in seriously impaired brain function and premature death and.

Avoiding travel to the Caribbean or Latin America is no longer enough to be safe here in Arkansas. Because we have infected people and the transmitting mosquitoes, we are all at risk. So what is to be done? Obviously don’t get bitten by an infected mosquito, but that is easier said than done. The first line of defense would be to use an effective repellent. The gold standard, the agent which all others are compared to is DEET. Nothing is as effective nor lasts as long per application. The science is clear that all others have a weaker effect and don’t last as long.

Broad scale spraying of insecticides has been shown to reduce transmission rates, but in so doing kills off not only the target mosquitoes, but also any and all other insects. Many of these are not only desirable but a necessary part of human life. The FDA has recently approved an interesting strategy involving the use of gene modification to create a mosquito whose offspring can’t reproduce.

Most promising is an effective vaccine to prevent infection. This will have the least impact on the biosphere. No deaths on non-target insect species, nor any disruption of other organisms that rely to some degree on mosquitoes as part of their diet.